At onset of injury, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), early mobilization, and moist heat packs are the favorable methods of treatment for acute injuries. In the subacute phase, a gradual progression from ROM activity to cervical and shoulder muscle strengthening is recommended.
If symptoms persist (eg, persistent weakness, chronic neurapraxia) regardless of therapy, further consideration for additional imaging and referral should be undertaken.
Surgical intervention is rarely needed, is injury-specific, and should be directed by a neurosurgical or orthopedic spine surgeon.
Neurosurgery spine/orthopedic spine
Manipulation is not recommended as a first line intervention, but it may be a helpful adjunct after full medical assessment has been completed.